Contenido principal del artículo

Resumen

Introducción: La lesión renal aguda se ha convertido en una complicación común en los niños hospitalizados, especialmente cuando están en una situación clínica crítica.


Objetivo: Conocer y sintetizar la bibliografía científica más actualizada sobre la lesión renal aguda en la población pediátrica.


Metodología: Estudio descriptivo de revisión integrativa. La búsqueda de artículos se ha realizado en las bases de datos Pubmed, Scopus y Google Scholar. La estrategia de búsqueda se estableció con los siguientes términos MeSH: ”acute kidney injury”, “children” y “pediatric”. La calidad metodológica se realizó mediante la escala STROBE.


Resultados: Se incluyeron 35 artículos, 19 de diseño observacional retrospectivo, 12 observacionales prospectivos, 3 revisiones bibliográficas y 1 estudio cualitativo. No hay variables sociodemográficas destacables que impliquen mayor probabilidad de presentar lesión renal aguda. Tanto la etiología como los factores de riesgo son muy variables. La lesión renal aguda se asocia a mayor número de complicaciones y estancia hospitalaria. No hay evidencia de cuidados enfermeros en la lesión renal aguda en pacientes pediátricos.


Conclusiones: Se observa una falta de homogeneidad en los criterios de definición, incidencia, etiología, factores de riesgo y de tratamiento en los pacientes pediátricos con lesión renal aguda, y escasez de artículos originales de investigación. La lesión renal aguda pediátrica se asocia a mayor mortalidad, morbilidad, mayor estancia hospitalaria y mayor duración de la ventilación mecánica. El papel de enfermería en el manejo del tratamiento conservador y de las terapias de reemplazo renal de este cuadro, es fundamental en la supervivencia de estos pacientes.

Palabras clave

lesión renal aguda niños pediatría hemodiálisis diálisis peritoneal cuidados enfermeros

Detalles del artículo

Cómo citar
1.
Rodríguez-Durán A, Martínez-Urbano J, Laguna-Castro M, Crespo-Montero R. Lesión renal aguda en el paciente pediátrico: revisión integrativa. Enferm Nefrol [Internet]. 30 de marzo de 2022 [citado 23 de mayo de 2022];25(1):11-7. Disponible en: https://enfermerianefrologica.com/revista/article/view/4467

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